Apart from outstanding archaeological, cultural, historical and geological values of international significance, Non nuoc Cao Bang UNESCO global geopark embraces important values of biodiversity
Non nuoc Cao Bang UNESCO global Geopark is very significant in Vietnam due to its rich biodiversity resources which are resulted from high geological diversity, favourable climate conditions, few natural disasters, remote geographical location and rugged terrain. In addition, the abundant land and water resources toghether with the rice and cash crop cultivation tradition of Ethnic groups in this area have made people in here less impact on forest and ecology systems. Aware of the importance of conservation and proper use of the natural resources, the Cao Bang PPC approved “The Biodiversity Conservation Master Plan of Cao Bang Province by 2020 with vision to 2030”.
As the result of the survey on evaluation of current situation of biodiversity sub-regions shows that Cao Bang province has 10 different ecosystems, divided into two main groups: Seven natural ecosystems (including 05 forest and two non-forest ecosystems) with a total area of 499.604,26 ha and 03 human-induced ecosystems with a total area of 170.738 ha ( in which planted forest system includes 22.240ha, agricultural land-143.800 ha and residential land-4.698 ha).
Forest area of Cao Bang is relatively large with about 372.908, 24 ha, accouting for about 55.59% of the natural area of the province. The area of the ecosystems in the reserved area and planned bio-diversity corridor is 44.353,21 ha which accounts for 6,62% total area of the forest. The 5 main natural forest ecosystems of Cao Bang are:
- Evergreen tropical rain broadleaf forest at low altitude (below 600m) with total area of 115.703 ha. This eco-system mostly distributes in geopark districts in such as: Thach An, eastern part of Nguyen Binh, Tien Thanh, Hong Dai and Cach Linh communes of Phuc Hoa district; Co Ngan, An Lac, Minh Long, Dong Loan communes of Ha Lang, Dam Thuy commune of Trung Khanh district; Na Sac, Dao Ngan and Xuan Hoa communes of Ha Quang; Ngu Lao, Be Trieu, Dai Tien, Nam Tuan communes of Hoa An district. This eco-system embraced 71 flora spicies and 57 faunna spicies which are listed in the red book of Viet Nam 2007. This eco-system play important role in maintaining and improving the forest coverage and environmental protection of the province.
- Evergreen sub-tropical mixed broadleaf-coniferous forest at mid-altitude (from 600 to 1600m): Common to most districts within Cao Bang Geopark. Apart from geopark districts, it is also distributed in the area of Bao Lam and Bao Lac district. This ecoystem is home to 79 flora spicies and 57 fauna spcies that were listed in the red book of Vietnam 2007.
- Evergreen temperate forest at high altitude (above 1,600m) with total area of 613,94ha, mostly distributed around the peak of the Phia Oac granitic Mount in Phan Thanh, Thanh Cong communes and Tinh Tuc town (Nguyen Binh). This ecosystem is home to more than 50 rare flora spicies, notably there are some orchid spicies, and about 48 rare fauna spicies. An unique feature of this ecosystem are the moss and dwarf forests, which are rare in Vietnam;
4.Hệ sinh thái rừng tre nứa thuần loại và hỗn giao diện tích 3.567,24 ha, phân bố chủ yếu ở các xã Đức Long, Dân Chủ, Bạch Đằng, Lê Trung (huyện Hòa An); xã Thịnh Vượng (huyện Nguyên Bình); và các xã Sơn Lộ, Hưng Thịnh, Huy Giáp, (huyện Bảo Lạc, ngoài phạm vi CVĐC). Đây là HST có nguồn gốc thứ sinh hình thành sau khi rừng bị khai thác. HST có vai trò quan trọng trong việc phục hồi rừng tự nhiên.
The pure and mixed bamboo-forest ecosystem has a total area of 3.567 ha, mostly found in Duc Long, Dan Chu, Bach Dang, and Le Trung communes of Hoa An districts, Thinh Vuong commune of Nguyen Binh district. This is the secondary eco-system, formed after the forest was exploited. This eco-system plays important role in restoring the nature.
5.The limestone forest ecosystem with total area of 153.210 ha, accounts for 22,84% total natural area of Cao Bang, especially districts with limestones of Non nuoc Cao Bang geopark. This is one of typical ecosystem not only of Cao Bang but of Viet Nam with lots of fauna spicies (67), flora spicies (51), among those there are some spicies only live on limestone. One of the most characteristic ecosystems of Non nuoc Cao Bang UNESCO global geopark in particular, home to the Cao Vit Gibbon in Trung Khanh district.
Other natural non-forest ecosystems are:
- The wetland ecosystem comprising a large system of rivers, streams and lakes, vital for the conservation of rare aquatic species. The total wetland ecosystem functions to preserve rare aquatic spicies, and contribute to tourism development and scientific, educational research and environmental protection,etc.
- The shrub and grassland ecosystem with total area of 122.827, 32 ha, accounts for 18,31% total natural area of the province. This provide shelters to some bird, small-animal spicies, and it also contributes to forest restoration and increase forest coverage for the province.
The designation of UNESCO global geopark would enhance the effectiveness of the preservation of biodiversity values of Cao Bang province in general and Non nuoc Cao Bang geopark in particular, while it helps to reinforce the sustainable development and use of these biodiversity values.