Cao Bang Geopark is very significant in Vietnam due to its rich biodiversity resources which are result of high geological diversity, favourable climate conditions, few natural disasters, remote geographical location and rugged terrain. Aware of the importance of conservation and proper use of the natural resources, the Cao Bang PPC approved “The Biodiversity Conservation Master Plan of Cao Bang Province by 2020 with vision to 2030”.
Cao Bang Geopark has 10 different ecosystems, divided into two main groups: Seven natural ecosystems (including five forest and two non-forest ecosystems) and three human-induced ecosystems (including planted forest, agricultural land and residential land). Forest area is relatively large and covers about half of the natural area of the province. The five main natural forest ecosystems are:
1. Evergreen tropical rain broadleaf forest at low altitude (below 600m): Widely distributed among districts of the province;
2. Evergreen sub-tropical mixed broadleaf-coniferous forest at mid-altitude (from 600 to 1600m): Common to most districts within Cao Bang Geopark;
3. Evergreen temperate forest at high altitude (above 1,600m): Mostly distributed to the top part of the Phia Oac granitic Mount. An unique feature of this ecosystem are the moss and dwarf forests, which are rare in Vietnam;
4. The pure and mixed bamboo-forest ecosystem: Found mostly in Hoa An and Nguyen Binh districts;
5. The limestone forest ecosystem: One of the most characteristic ecosystems of Cao Bang Geopark, in particular, home to the Cao Vit gibbon in Trung Khanh district.
Other natural non-forest ecosystems are:
6. The wetland ecosystem comprising a large system of rivers, streams and lakes, vital for the conservation of rare aquatic species;
7. The shrub and grassland ecosystem is the habitat for several species of bird, small mammal, and contributes to the reforestation.
Tea garden in Phia Oac
Phia Oac coniferous forest